Bioethics in the vision of the Orthodox Theology…
The Metamorphosis of the European world from the medieval era to the modern era or, the Enlightenment of the eighteenth century entailed the considerable mutations on the European culture scene. From the God we passed to the man, from the theology to the science, and from the spiritual values we passed to the material values, like so many expressions of the globalization.
The mechanistic conception has favored the huge scientific and technological progress of the contemporary occidental society. But this conception is the cause of the spiritual and the moral regress of the world in which we are living.
The economic, financial and political factors have acquired a considerable importance to the detriment of the spiritual preoccupation. We are living in a world where the material values have triumphed over the spiritual. On the one side, we are witnessing at the victories of the science and the technology that go far beyond the most optimistic expectations of the eighteenth century, but, in his inner life, the man feels himself caught up in the grips of the irrational forces which he can no longer to control.
The explosion of the violence and the sensuality, which spreads throughout the society and comprises the circles more and wider, is a conclusive evidence of the human degradation and of the spiritual climate of the contemporary society .
The understanding and the acceptance of the relationship between Logos and creation are a vital importance for the destiny of the world. Due to misunderstanding of this relationship or its rejection, in the West has been developed the evolutionary theory, which based on the premise that the God, either does not exist, or at least is absent from the act of creation. Because if HE would exist, should be accepted that, either it couldn’t create the world in 6 days or to bring it into being only using His word, either it do not wants to be envolve, and then we have to do with a God who is not love. Thus, the God which do not creates, has no the reasons to be involved in neither/any salvation and has no the conditions which them has been created himself in order to the Incarnation. Evolutionism is what the atheist philosophers needed to justify the autonomy of man using his origin as an argument, or how darwinist Richard Dawkins said: „Darwin made it possible for me to become a complete atheist by intellectual point of view” .
Based on the autonomy of the world and man toward God, the modernity has drawn the logical conclusion that: the world can be completely understood without assuming the existence of any god, whether it be the God of the philosophers or of the believers. All is left is to declared a new god or new gods. Falling again into the trap handed her by the devil in the Garden of Eden and in the tendency to be „like God, knowing the good and the evil” (Gen. 3: 5), the man to self-idolize, to self-divinize and declare himself god.
The new god has developed a new cult stating within it and the images/idols that will complete the picture of the human self-divinization. Thus, the first idol emerged and consecrated as such for the modern era seems to be „The cult of civilization”.
The establishment of this cult has consisted and consists in subordination of culture, art and all moral values, tradition and faith in God towards the need for civilization. All these were oriented by the modern man according to a superior goal: the ensuring of civilization.
The modern science is another idol of the modern era as we perceive it so, because she conferred himself an absolute power. In essence, the proclamation of science as idol in modernity consist in the fact that the center of gravity and knowledge is transferred from God to man.
The modern age has imposed the conception that man is an autonomous being which can develop himself, especially with the help of his mind (nous) and using his inner powers. Strictly speaking, this means the deification of the human rationality and the presenting it as a substitute of faith in God. But the denial of the Living God was followed by the denial of reason herself. Soon was reached the absurd of the despotism.
The human reason was self-limited to the knowledge of matter and deprived o the absolute criteria of evaluation for known things and has failed in conflict with the thinking of the peers. The third idol of modernism is the belief in historical progress of humanity and the sacrifice on the altar of this idol are the past values, tradition, truth.
Bioprinting: 3D printing for creating organs, or in other words: Bioethics
Bioprinting is the term that defines the use of 3D printers to create the tissues or the organs. The most often are used stem cells or other types of cells in what’s called bio-ink, the biology ink.
More recently, 3D printers are being used in the medical field, where they create tissues which may be used for surgeries. Still not we haven’t reached the creation of a functional organ because it is difficult to print the blood vessels but, the engineers at Cornell University (USA) managed to print an ear, so the first steps were made. Technological and ethical implications are quite large and the questions are quite obviously, „we will become immortals if we will create the immortal bodies we can create organs on treadmill?” Or „we could do a transplant of the nervous system to a new host body?” One of the legacies left from the last century (the sixth decade of the last century) is the bioethics, a science with a huge field of research, but with a very limited content.
This phenomenon should not be considered a paradox; if it is considered that the science of Bioethics is called to reconcile the most disparate views regarding the pressing and contradictory issues of human life.
The field of the bioethics is considered to be, first of all, the research of human life. In fact, the bioethics deals with all moral and medical classical problems, and the newest ones, related to the human life.
The cause that has generated the interest for the bioethics is the rapidly developing of the biology and its application in medicine.
The bioethics is presented as an extension of the medical ethics and his interest is in centered problem that involve biology and application of new medical technologies in all processes related to the birth, the growth and the death of a human being.
Bioethics analyzes, especially, the moral problems which concern:
- A) The infertility, the assisted reproduction, the artificial insemination, the prenatal control, the birth control, the abortion and those relating thereto;
- B) The interventions concerning the preservation or the improvement of human life, the cloning, the sampling and the transplant of tissue or organs;
- C) The approach to terminal period of life, active or passive euthanasia and other problems related to this. More precisely, the analysis of the problems to which we have referred is the object of the biomedical ethics because, the bioethics spread over the whole world of human living and research the links with it. But, because the medical ethics is the most important part of the bioethics, the bioethics is currently using his name for the entire field of research.
The bioethics, is trying to prevent and control the general evolutions generated by the jumps of the biology and medical technology, and functions almost exclusively at an impersonal level. It objectifies the procedures and the numbers of the people, try to tackle general states, and not persons or interpersonal relationships. His interest is focused on the analysis of the latest issues and cares for their global approach to by ultra-generalized principles. That is why, when it does not express in a religious confession or a cosmo theory, ignores the religious conceptions, metaphysical or any other kind concerning the world and tries to rely only on utilitarian principles and values, that can be accepted on a larger scale.
Thus, in the bioethics are highlighted the following principles:
– the principles of autonomy; -principles of challenge and of avoiding the pain and the suffering;
– the principles of beneficence;
– the principles of justice.
These principles, which are interpreted, usually, from different viewpoints, are proving to be very elastics in practice and even contradictories. In addition, today it is known the erosion of the principles and of the moral values in society. Even the cases of unnatural behaviors such as homosexuality are known and accepted as normal. When the man is emptied of any specific spirituality and identifies himself with its biological functions, all that comes from his needs and are considered normal. According to the above, the basis the most important of bioethics remains the anthropology on which is based medicine today.
This anthropology, which is in essence alien to the Christian, is mechanistic and one-dimensional. Anthropology mechanistic and one-dimensional can’t support a real moral.
The moral is always understood as the movement from to be at to be good. But when to be is approached by mechanical and one-dimensional, then to be good is purely a mechanistic evolution and not a spiritual or qualitative one of: to be.
The bioethics appears usually as a morality which is in a constant flow and transformation, imposed by the research laboratories, exploited by political and economic factors and promoted by computer and mass communication. Do not hesitate to accept the abortions as therapeutics or to make the services to eugenics thus promoting the racism.
The aim of morality was always to help people to acquire the good habits still he is small.
The morality, however, don`t refer to the habit as such, but its quality. And, unfortunately, this work tends to be forgotten.
The habit is nowadays considered enough reason to justify any practice, when it presents some utility. Especially, when moral reactions occur on the question of applying the contemporary medical technology, the technocrats despise them and consider them the secondary impediments that will be removed as humans will acquire new habit.
In parallel, the promote of principles and religious commandments is characterized by the representatives of secular bioethics as fundamentalism and therefore is downplayed or disregarded. All these make, however, the evidence of the weakening of moral conscience and a profound spiritual crisis in which we find ourselves. So it has come to a situation where, today, the bioethics tends to replace the traditional morality that has as main object the personal life and the interpersonal relationships between mans. Moreover, the real dislocation of morality began much earlier, in the theological circles, by detaching it form spirituality and promoting almost exclusively the social moral.
The social morals states in the West since the middle of the last century, and later the Western theologians concerned with the moral interest focused almost exclusively on Bioethics. It already appears in a more extensive space, as a moral of globalization that is a morality which tries to bring closer together people with different mentalities and trends regarding the issues raised by the applications of contemporary medicine and biology and to promote the homogenization of the criteria for approaching these problems. In parallel, it cultivates the idea that the moral life of man is determined by the biologists.
The bioethics, as deontology of globalization, it`s closely related to the tradition of secularized Western Christianity and, especially, by the Western morality. It is a moral with a legalist character, as the western morality which is subsisting like a base of it. And it’s principles do not provide convergence points for people, but generate more contradictions.
They are similar to the principles of so-called social moral that can be interpreted and applied according to the wishes and the interests of the powerful. By the golden rule: „All that you people to do to you, do to others” (Matthew 7:12), the man is called to put himself in the place of the other and to act toward him like would act to himself. In other words, the golden rule is addressed to the human person and it requires understanding and solidarity with the neighbor. It cultivates solidarity and excludes isolation, builds the unity and removes the disunity. It doesn’t happen the same with the principles of the bioethics. Even more, it comes to the opposite.
The absolutization of first principle of bioethics, the principle of autonomy doesn’t bring people together, but isolates them, it doesn’t unite, but separates them. Certainly, this principle seems to respect the particularity of each. However, this respect is proved by the nature of things, to be a chimera, because it is impossible to propose the principle of individual autonomy as long as, society needs unity and have nothing on which this unity can be based. If the individual is absolutized the communion disappears and with it the society.
That is why; the strong every time propose their arbitrary position as a unifying factor for the society. The laws come to limit this arbitrary. But to the moral level, the absolutization of autonomy and its confrontation with any idea or collective value lead to confusion and incoherence.
It is normal that in the Orthodox Church the bioethics issues to fall within Christian morality preoccupation. Moreover, the moral teaching of the Church was confronted from the beginning with bioethical problems such as the abortions and euthanasia. Thus, the approach of bioethics problems, as well as moral ones, it must be based on anthropology and Orthodox Christian cosmology. We must see this problems from the perspective of human deification and the human renewal in Christ. A fundamental premise of moral behavior of man is that man is not the cause of its existence, but life is the divine gift. When the man has no conscience, it is normal to go beyond his limits and to self-divinized. Moreover, the important guideline in the Christian morality is the hypostatic principle or the person principle from which emerge the meaning and the functionality of the other principles and methodology of moral and social life.
The human person is not a given static but a dynamic becoming. This begins from the moment of his conception and continues endlessly, and the infinite for Christianity is not impersonal or super-personal, but is the Person. More specifically, is one third of persons is the Holy Trinity.
Finally, the birth and the evolution of man suppose and express the communion.
The person cannot be conceived as an isolated individual because he exist only in communion. And the true communion is always done in the human-divine communion which is the Church. In the face of danger the burying human under the pile of his genes, the Christian morality presents an unlimited perspective of perfection and its deification.
The Christian morality is cultivated and developed in the human person. Prosopocentric character of this is not certainly in agreement with the views that dominate the bioethics. In our time, marked by the absence of spirituality the idea of returning to the powers of the spirit is not very popular. And yet, the healing by this lack of morality, in which our society is today, as well as the cause for this this situation must not be searched at moral or social level, but a spiritual level. That is where the forces that influence the moral and social level come from.
The spirit reins the hearts of men and determines the moral and social life, and not vice versa.
Certainly, this spirit can be crafty/subtle or perverse; can be the spirit of hedonism and materialism. But it will be always spirit and not body and blood. That is why, apostol Paul says that we are not fighting „against body and blood, but against the reigns, against the powers, against the rulers of darkness, against the spiritual wickedness spread in heavens” (Ephesians 6:12). And for a man to fight against these spirits he needs power given by Christian spirit.
The Christian spirit is not some impersonal force or impersonal principle. It is not even some temporary or eternal law. It is God who has revealed Himself in the person of Christ and remains in the Church through the Holy Spirit. And the healing of the world may take support from his revelation degree with Christ and with the Church. In the person of Christ it shows the Word of God, as a person and as a commandment. It looks like the Son of God, which is sacrificing for man and as a way of life absolutely corresponds to the divine command.
The new commandment of love is not only given by the Christ, but also is embodied in the person of Christ. And its practical content had shown in His life. „I give you a new Commandment, that you love one another as I have loved you” (John 13, 34).
The Christian Spirit it is offer by lifestyle. The Christian life must express the content of the Christian faith. This will arouse the ambition and others to try the truth of the Christian life.
The straightening of our society is a matter of the personal straightening. In fact, each of us is a member of society, therefore, to straight himself, will straight a part of society and in this way will create a health outbreak in its organism. We already find the highest point, where easy it creates a personal straightening/correction problem, we understand above all that we can’ ask ourselves the straightening of others. If God does not force man to straight, how can we think we can do it?
The respect for the other’s freedom is the premise of any Christian act. Moreover, we must know that the correction of our own person doesn’t mean limiting ourselves.
The man, as a person, there is always evolves in relationship with others.
The self-limit is necessary for a certain period of time for collectedness and self-criticism. But the aim is not to limit the Christian at himself, but his opening to all humanity.
The grand error, which typically we do is forgetting the double commandment of love and therefore we dissociate our individual responsibility to social responsibility, which is universal. In this way, we come to understand the personal responsibility as a lack of social responsibility and the social responsibility as a lack of personal responsibility.
The personal responsibility involves caring for any justified intervention in social relations. And the indifference to them, which proves social irresponsibility, is not personal responsibility. And indifference to them, which proves social irresponsibility, not personal responsibility.
The Christian considers himself above all, accountable to anything happening around him. Not judging others, nor does it reckoned in charge for the social evil. More than that, he don`t reckon the responsible impersonal social system, whose value or lack of value depends on the man. In the same time, however, he does not remain indifferent to what is happening in the world, to people and to the impersonal social system. And here we owe to confess that Christian’s indifference from ignorance or form lack of courage has a very important part in promoting evil in the world.
The world is our body wider. Its problems are our problems. That is why, the interest from the world is the interest for ourselves. Separating in Nestorian mode our person by the world, seeing the church in a monophysic manner, only as a spiritual society which has no relations with the issues of daily life, we become in reality heretics.
The Orthodox Church has always been interwoven with everyday life.
The Orthodox Church has always been interwoven with everyday life.
The problems of injustice, poverty, health, social instability, feel like its own problems.
The problems that we have people in our time are issues related to the body of the Church that is our body. However, the lived reality of the Orthodox Churches does not always seem to confirm their theological teaching.
The temptation of nationalism, which has been condemned by conciliar decision in 1872, does not cease to create problems for Christian unity. Likewise, the money attraction is deadly threat to their spiritual life. In the moral and social life, the Orthodox people probably have no position of superiority.
The secularization that was imported form the West to the East found the Orthodox peoples in a disadvantaged position.
The rough imitation and assimilation of elements foreign to our culture can create social and personal disorder. But, the superiority of the Orthodox can be found at theological level, at the level of remaining in the truth of the Christian faith. In the Orthodox Church there is the pure truth of Christianity kept alive by his eschatological perspective. This is the great value of Orthodoxy and it guarantees the quality of its offer to the whole mankind.
The perspective outlined currently in the world by the expanding globalization phenomenon is bleak. All existing phenomena confirm the crisis and announces the upcoming of explosion. As long as man works aiming exclusively its individual interest, and not of the neighbor, the social life is undermined and is reached at deadlock.
The ideal of economic development becomes trampoline of self-destruction. The asphyxiating gluttony, on the one hand, the starvation and death, on the other hand, threatens with the death our globalized society.
The rich get richer because the economy built on gain leads the wealth always in the hands of the rich and the poor get poorer because the same economy, to the need to slow down the development to ensure its viability, limited the revenues of the poor. This evolution however, can only have an end, namely self-destruction.
The man can not to subdue easily by his selfishness or to empty, to accept the others. Even though, the disposal is innate of human nature to love, the true love does not characterize, the fallen man and needs to sacrifice of his selfishness, to show it.
The model/pattern of this love is God in the Holy Trinity. The unity of the Holy Trinity, which is achieved through by loving and kenotic perichoresis of Persons, is the prototype of unity between humans, in order to constitute the deifying society.
The Christ showed the world that love and the Orthodox Church proposes all this love for man’s salvation, coinciding with the rise to the stature of universal person. To correspond of such life perspective the superhuman efforts are needed.
The man created and perishable is called to impropriate the mode of life of the uncreated and eternal Being. Therefore, the Orthodox theology speaks always of the divine-human cooperation, about the theandric synergy.
The only limit of cooperation between man and God is only the death. Ultimately, this provides the confidence the man in God and the assurance that the death has been overcome. But thus breaks the wall of death and opens new creation of the Gospel. That is why, the Gospel, as recorded by the apostle Paul, „is not from human” (Gal 1, 11). In pantheism differently from that confuses being world and being of God, the Holy Scripture says that God’s being is transcendent being radical to the world, but through energy, the light and the work of the Spirit, God is present in all creation. Those who isolate the God in transcendent and disregard His work in the world, denies the attribute of omnipotence divine and transforms God into a powerless being.
The God without His energy uncreated by which is present and works in the world, appears as inconsistent, God. The Orthodox Church managed to keep religiosity people consistently saying the presence of God in creation and man.
The tragedy of modern and of postmodern man comes from the fact that he is forever longing the God, searching for Christ. This search for Christ as the meaning of life is the basis of the anxiety and disorder for which suffers the modern man, because in the depths of his soul is flashing the longing after the life he choked itself the regret after losing meaning. But, the meaning of our lives is revealed only when we discover our roots deep in the Trinitarian reality, in Christ. In other words, without faith in God the life of man life is marked by the lack of sense.
The successes and joys, his labor, his good deeds go nowhere. Do not provide any reward that lasts and thank him forever the man.
The good and the evil does not matter because it is suppressed the conscience and the freedom is also empty in the absence of God and does not have any role because there are no responsibility with eternal value.
The sufferings and the death of man cause anguish and despair because beyond them is no horizon, everything seems futile. One such man completely covered in natural frames, can no longer have any value, because belongs of the whole earth. He value as much as has given, how can produce becoming source of revenue. Its value consists only in what is seen: his body. And then, man is no longer a mystery, there is someone, but only something. Not a person, but an individ, a puppet, one from the multitude of animals.
The exaggerated preferences of the modern and the postmodern human, expressed toward esotericism, gnosticism, magic, occultism, witchcraft, spiritism and Satanism and that these phenomena have become today such a scale that seem to replace faith in God, everything is explained through the emptiness that he feels inside due to the absence of God in his life. Undoubtedly, the civilization where we live is tributary of economic development: in the center of interests is not the search for spiritual truth or essential thrill to the mystery for once and uniqueness of every person.
The public space of the agora loses its classic dimensions in such a large extent that it is replaced with the market place (market), in the most economic sense of the word. If in the classic sense, the agora is where different voices meet and listen to a mutual enrichment, a strong emergence of the economic factors, in the contemporary culture operate sometimes the painful reductions.
The disappearance of the fifties and so far of half of the languages spoken in the world must be a serious signal reflection due the respect to national and local cultures. Man looking for a sense, does not find in today’s society and is not satisfied with his life. Then he finds refuge in some imaginary „artificial paradises”.
The violence, the drugs, the alcohol have the same role as the occult practices listed above: to fill the gaps left inside the man after the God was banished. Under the influence of the postmodern world, even some pious Christians are victims of these serious deviations, being encouraged by some priests fallen in love of money. Increasingly, it is noted that Holy Cross and the icons are venerated not for their connection with the holy people which they represent, but they are idolized separately to them and in their place.
The everyday concerns of postmodern man, and these concerns inclined more toward the bottom, toward the matter and body, the culture itself fell to the temporal and minors ideals. Because it is the work of individuals who live only to eat, to produce material goods, to dress, to multiply and to master, of individuals who are no longer striving to emerge from the rules of nature but, to resign himself, seeking to honor pleasures to live their lives and fulfill their dreams in this life that they love.
The postmodern man greedily wants more and more goods and therefore arrive soon to be possessed by his own possessions. And the postmodern society stimulates the greed, manufacturing always new needs, but those needs are induced, produced and caused. Never, in his entire history the man had so much power to create artificial needs. This artificial goods live him unsatisfied and there overwhelming number prevents his personality to mature. Deep in his soul he suffers, but suppress their suffering with intense experience of the moment.
The sufferings it causes man who consumes more and more, at the urging by publicity most of the time immoral persist in humans, despite the common message of all advertising is the motto of whom bore fruit rich field: „you have many goods laid up for many years; take thine ease, eat, drink, and be merry „(Luke 12:19); target of such advertising is to make us worship the belly: „god is their belly” (Phil. 3:19). Due to subhuman level were reached the postmodern man, he no longer taste the true culture and is no longer able to create an authentic culture, which explains the preference of most young people today, expressed in surveys, for subculture. It does not require an effort in the act of creation or in reception, but neither feeds.
The suffering caused by the inability to fit to Absolut, planted in man through by the act of creation, and so yearning for mission and his destiny after heights beyond the natural world, modern man is too often and more and more the victim of surrogates: alcohol, drugs, sex, prostitution, adventure, luxury, violence, pornography, etc. But they do not take the place by God and do not solve the fundamental problem of man: salvation. Lacking it the Model – Christ, the modern man looking for patterns among the people but because of the confusion promoted by himself removing and disregard the divine revelation – the only true universal criterion – and the supremacy of by divine values: truth, good and beautiful, man modern, declaring himself the measure of all things, decides what is good and what is bad, who is good and who is bad. That is why he seeks and finds the patterns of immoral conduct, the people without end and without God, only because they were declared „megastars” and „superstars”.
The confusion between good and evil, between truth and lying, between beauty and ugly, between music and noise, of works of art or culture and kitsch, between morality and immorality, has generated by the indifference to the Person of Christ, led to the overthrow of values scale. Is why, the Holy is disregarded, and the star, even if it is immoral, is idolized. But by this man demeans himself, because if life lived in holiness no longer an attractive target and higher, man betrayed his destiny; if one prefers what is small and fleeting , instead of greatness and of eternity, he chose the state and condition of the animal and was disqualified! „For My people did two evils: Me, the fountain of living waters, have forsaken Me, and have dug fountains broken, that can hold no water” (Ier.2,13). We have to do with a new anthropological type, which resemble, less and less, with the Christian anthropological type.
In the postmodernism, the new anthropological type emerges according to the requirements of the day, transmitted through the media and not by the Truth revealed.
The new anthropological refuse the obligations: the faithfulness, the responsibility, and precisely through their refusal to disturb the harmony in society and causes distress in the lives of fellows.
The postmodern man has no conscience of sinfulness, of guilt, because he does not feel accountable to God and to fellows, so that the sin in the postmodern society is perceived as a fact indifferent, if not as a virtue. We note with dismay on the streets, in factories, in the family, to multiply „the masks” and to disappear „the persons”.
The people have roles usually lifeless. It looks, increasingly like the accessories of a mechanism, are no longer the persons. Very often we have the feeling that we are in a dance sui generis of some persons disguised, where the participants hide their original identity with an original note which consists precisely in the fact that every time when a mask is removed, another appears. In such a crisis of human authenticity it is impossible that we walk together to become a real communion.
When the people do not love, they cannot be honest, open, but being selfish, pretending, hiding their true face and true intentions. „The masks” that the postmodern people wear have generated the phenomenon of mistrust in the human relationships; a general suspicion that makes any man should not have total confidence in each other.
The lack of trust carries with it the fear of man to his fellow and all contribute to the enhancement of stress and uncertainty. The principal cause of this dramatic situation in which postmodern man lives is in opposition to God and to his revealed Truth.
In the place of God he prefers to spend more energy, to constitute new and new human institutions, to live in fear and uncertainty, and all without ever to be sure if the truth and the justice were restored. But all these sufferings caused of man by the modern and postmodern thinking, together constitute a real tragedy that a man lives today and is increasing by the day. That is why; today is speaking more to the crisis than the joys, more the fear than the hope, more than what separates them from people than what’s approaching.
The spiritual crisis, the moral crisis, the political crisis, the economic crisis, the crisis of management, the family crisis, the crisis of educational and cultural, the crisis that talks so much today are nothing more than the expressions of tragedy to the postmodern society he lives as a result of her separation from God. For man there is no other solution than turning to Christ because of the Incarnation of the Logos, the destiny of man is bound by his Christ.
The coming of Jesus in the world or the Incarnation of the Son of God brings in the world a Law and a Reason, but the reason itself and the law, not a certain conception of life but the supreme conception of life. In Jesus Christ is revealed the measure of all things and of all values in this world. Like He is a center of time, from which to start counting the years from the beginning of the world towards the end of her world, so it’s the measure from that report the levels of life attained before or after Him.
Today, the man is in a state of crisis and must to return to his natural state. And the natural state of the man is that which defines him as a true man; the real man is the man of virtue ,the virtuous man, settled in well, proving that strength in opposition to sin and life which sees the presence of Christ through by behavior and attitude. Man’s natural state is in the concern for the higher, the spirit, in the he responsibility to himself and to others, in personal cultivation and affirmation of the man dignity.
Man’s natural state is the same with the state of grace and it cannot have it only if are in communion with Jesus Christ, our God and with others.
- Pr. Prof. Univ. Dr. Dumitru Radu, Repere morale pentru omul contemporan, Editura Mitropolia Olteniei, Craiova, 2007, p.17.
- Ierom. Serafim Rose, Cartea Facerii. Crearea lumii și omul îceputurilor, Ed. Sophia, București, 2001, p.345.
- Pr. Conf. Dr. Vasile Citirigă, Taina omului și tragedia lui în epoca postmodernă, în revistă “Ortodoxia”, nr. 3-4, anul LVII (2006), p. 30.
- Pr. Prof. Univ. Dr. Dumitru Radu, Repere morale pentru omul contemporan, Editura Mitropolia Olteniei, Craiova, 2007., p.85.
- Pr. Prof. Univ. Dr. Dumitru Radu, Repere morale pentru omul contemporan, Editura Mitropolia Olteniei, Craiova, 2007, p.17.
- Prof. Georgios Mantzaridis, Op. cit., p.154.
- Ibidem, p. 183.
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Dr. Stelian Gomboş